Intrinsic risk factors for ACVD include a family history for atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes.
CTA image display and interpretation for ACVD are most effectively achieved when applying advanced visualization techniques (Table 1).
Symptomatic intra- and extracranial carotid and vertebral ACVD may manifest clinically as acute focal stroke, transient ischemia, monocular blindness, cerebral ischemia, or a combination thereof.
In distinction, patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia secondary to ACVD typically present with weight loss, abdominal angina, and food fear.
Early performance with MDCT established its role for CTA in the evaluation for renal arterial ACVD and RAS.
Patients at risk for ACVD due to other factors such as hypertension, obesity, smoking, etc.
Patients can be informed that systemic inflammatory markers are reduced with periodontal treatment but should not draw other conclusions about the outcomes of periodontal therapy and ACVD
They should not be told that periodontal therapy prevents or improves ACVD or reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes because those conclusions have not been scientifically proven to date.