The USDA Southern Regional Research Center in New Orleans, LA, in collaboration with Cotton Incorporated, recognized the opportunity for advantaged, cotton nonwoven disinfecting wipes if the ADBAC binding problem could be eliminated.
The overall research goals included: 1) identification of all the significant mechanisms impacting quat active delivery from cellulose in comparison to polyester-based nonwovens; 2) elimination of cotton binding of ADBAC through modification of conventional wet wipe formulation chemistry; 3) development of a prototype formulation using simple, EPA-friendly chemistries and a common industry quat biocide; and 4) demonstration of enabling technology for the nonwoven industry and the associated technical understanding required to leverage cotton fibers in advantaged disinfecting nonwoven wipes.
The nonwoven samples were immersed in an aqueous bath of ADBAC biocide containing commercial wet wipe formulation ingredients.
Adsorption of ADBAC on cotton nonwovens can be attributed to electrostatic interactions, dispersion forces and hydrophobic interactions.
This trend combined with other observations indicates the binding mechanism of ADBAC on cotton surfaces is electrostatic interactions.
At a constant surfactant concentration, the liquor ratio, pH, temperature and electrolyte concentration in the solution were found to have a second level effect on ADBAC binding.
The following figures show the level of ADBAC exhausted as a function of the concentration of the co-formulated nonionic surfactant, polyethylene-oxide 12 (Figure 4) and small quat, tetramethyl ammonium chloride (Figure 5).
In summary, the modified USDA wet wipe disinfection formulations containing a common ADBAC biocide were shown to not bind the quat in a 100% hydroentangled bleached cotton fiber nonwoven wipe.
The company is in the process of commercializing its "AdBac" carpet backing material that incorporates its "RFX" fabric with primary and secondary backings for a latex-free carpet backing material.
Some of these composite materials - as well as AdBac - incorporate Amoco's RFX fabric, which has led to a shift in marketing strategy.