Two doses of AESN (100 and 200 mg/kg) were used based upon the result from acute toxicity study and were administered once daily by oral route.
Phytochemical screening of AESN revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, phenols, and anthraquinones.
The limit test for acute toxicity study showed that AESN was tolerated at a dose of 2000 mg/kg p.o.
Treatment with L-glutamine and AESN (200 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in food intake compared to mucositis control whereas treatment with AESN (100 mg/kg) did not show improvement in food intake compared to mucositis control (Figure 8).
Treatment with standard and test (AESN 100 mg/kg) did not show significant (P < 0.05) difference of OMS compared to mucositis control whereas AESN (200 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in OMS compared with mucositis control (Figure 9).
In AESN (100 mg/kg) the mortality rate was 33% on 8th day and it was constant till the end of study period.
In this study, we demonstrated that aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum (AESN), a traditional Chinese medicine, has preventive effect against chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis.
However, improvement in body weight and food intake was observed in test compound treatment group, except AESN (100 mg/kg) in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis where improvement was not observed.
From the present study, we can conclude AESN at 200 mg/kg could protect oral mucositis against chemotherapy plus radiation and methotrexate induced oral mucositis.