AFARD - What does AFARD stand for? The Free Dictionary
References in periodicals archive
(14) Massan d'Almeida, Genre et Pouvoir Politique, AFARD
Togo, 2006 http://www.afard.org/docs/togogen.pdf
Shafei also utilized verse 216 of al-Baqara (The Calf) to argue that jihad was not afard
(obligation) but was mu'bah (permissible and optional), stressing the nature of jihad as offensive warfare asfard kifaya (an optional individual obligation).
The creation of AFARD
in Senegal, as the first independent organization for research on women in Africa in 1977, is a good example of that vision.