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In accordance with this finding, previous studies showed that the combination of AFM1, OTA, and ZEA exhibited synergistic or additive cytotoxic effects in the Caco-2 cell line .
For these reasons, different organizations have set limits on AFM1 in milk and other dairy products.
Currently, several methods have been developed for the detection of AFM1 and CAP, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gold immune chromatographic assay (GICA) [5-9].
Total daily exposure to AFM1 = Exposure from milk/Body weight
Overall percentage of AFM1 contamination and concentration levels were found higher in the milk collected from buffalo dairy farms as compared to cow dairy farms.
The metabolism of AFB1 results in oxidative derivatives including hydroxylated species such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin Qi (AFQi) in addition to covalent macromolecular adducts with DNA and proteins.
A Veeco Multimode AFM (Veeco Instruments, Santa Barbara, CA) which was also used for the added mass and reference cantilever methods in the MRR is described as AFM1. A second commercial instrument--an Asylum MFP-3D (Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA) standalone is described in this paper as AFM2.
(4.) JDP 3-40, Security and Stabilisation, 2-11; and AFM1, Countering Insurgency, 1-1.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and M2, the hydroxylated products of B1 and B2, are found in milk and milk products.
AFs are difuranocoumarins and are chemically grouped into two main subgroups according to their chemical structure: the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB1 AFB2 AFB2a AFM1 AFM2 AFM2a) and aflatoxicol (AFL) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG1 AFG2 AFG2a AFGM1 AFGM2 AFGM2a and AFB3) .
Abstract.- Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was determined in market raw milk samples collected from four towns of city Lahore, Pakistan.
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