The most recently recorded pneumocystosis death in the AFMR was in 2012.
Among the fungal causes of death in the AFMR, sporotrichosis was the least common.
We thank James Escobar and the AFMR staff for their assistance with database access.
The medial aspect of the mandibular ramus was inspected in both mandibular antimeres of the selected mandibles by a single examiner, which considered as AFMR every foramina found between the MF and the posterior margin of the ramus (Fig.
The presence of the AFMR was presented in percentage and absolute values.
The AFMR was identified in 15 of the 30 examined mandibles (50 %), presenting exclusively in the right side in four cases (13.33 %), exclusively in the left side in other four cases (13.33 %) and simultaneously in both mandibular antimeres in seven of the 30 inspected mandibles (23.33 %).
Different nomenclatures were used to refer to the AFMR. The term "Accessory Mandibular Foramina" (Freire et al.; Samanta & Kharb) was used to refer to the foramina studied by us or to a foramina adjacent to the lingual foramen (Przstanska & Bruska, 2010, 2012).
researched the incidence of the AFMR in Brazilians dry mandibles.
The presence of the AFMR may be one of the causes of anaesthetic failure in the inferior alveolar nerve block (Kaufman et al.), may cause complications during orthognathic and corrective surgeries in the mandibular ramus (Sanchis et al.) and, just like other foraminas in the mandible (Haveman & Tebo, 1976), may become a pathway to neoplasic cell proliferation in the trabecular bone of the mandible (Fannibunda & Matthews, 1999).
Analyzing the positioning of the AFMR and considering the standard deviation, this structure was situated in a central position between the MF and the PM in both sides of the mandible.
The next step will be to investigate the occurrence and positioning of the AFMR in relation to mandibular landmarks in vivo and in vitro using imaging exams.
For the cases of occurrence of the AFMR, the professional will be able to locate it in a central position between the MF and the PM, distant about 7.0 mm to the MF and 10.50 mm to the ML in both sides of the mandible.