Introduced in 2004, AGDM required UNHCR's field offices to be "aware of differences within their populations of concern" with particular attention to the situation of women and girls, men and boys, adolescents, older people, those with disabilities, and members of minority groups.
In this respect, it became increasingly clear that a major policy revision would be required if UNHCR's commitment to AGDM was to be taken seriously.
Studies of the physiological basis of genetic gains in grain yield in sets of historic wheat cultivars worldwide have generally shown number of grains per square meter (usually because of number of grains per ear) and HI to be positively correlated with grain yield, but no similar positive correlation between AGDM at harvest and grain yield (e.g., Waddington et al., 1986; Austin et al., 1989; Slafer et al., 1994: Brancourt-Hulmel et al., 2003).
Thus, future gains in yield may increasingly depend on achieving greater harvest AGDM while maintaining HI.
The HI was calculated as the fraction of AGDM present as grain.
Diagram 3 Optimal Signal Warrant Officer AGDM
27 CW5 105 CW4 194 CW3 460 CW2 Current Signal Warrant Officer AGDM
16 CW5 159 CW4 268 CW3 396 CW2
Seasonal average crop growth rate was determined by dividing AGDM by the number of days from emergence to physiological maturity (black layer).
Within each water treatment, correlations (n = 9) were calculated between grain yield and the following parameters: AGDM, harvest index, grain size, grain number per square meter, average crop growth rate, average grain growth rate, duration of grain growth, relative rate of leaf senescence (Borrell et al., 2000), GLAM, stem length, and stem reserves mobilized for grain filling.
Yield AGDM No water deficit Yield 1.00 AGDM([double dagger]) 0.90(***) 1.00 HI 0.49 0.06 Grain size 0.06 -0.23 Grain number/[m.sup.2] 0.77(**) 0.87(***) Grain growth rate 0.95(***) 0.95(***) Duration of grain growth 0.29 -0.04 Rel.
([double dagger]) AGDM, aboveground dry matter; GLAM, green leaf area at maturity; HI, harvest index.