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On the other hand, the economically active and highly skilled diasporas (AHSD) refers to the stock of emigrants aged 25 and above (+25) with tertiary or higher education.
Using the conceptual framework, we develop the following econometric models for both total diasporas (TD) and highly skilled diasporas (AHSD) of each ASEAN-5 country, respectively:
This indicates that the spatial distribution of the TD and AHSD of ASEAN-5 countries are asymmetrical and highly concentrated in a small number of countries.
A small constant is added to all the values of TD, AHSD, D, STOCKdex and GDPPATdex, i.e., plus one (+1) before applying the natural log (Ln) transformation.
Table 5 reports the GLS estimation of the SUR equations for both total diasporas (TD), as well as highly skilled diasporas (AHSD) of each ASEAN-5 country.
The relatively high elasticity of Ph*Pd for Malaysian AHSD also backs the view that the country's talent workers choose destinations with large market size and better career prospects (World Bank 2011).
In the case of the Indonesian AHSD, the result should be interpreted together with the strong impact of COLONY.
As the normalized value of the cultural proximity index is between zero and one, it is more appropriate to measure the responsiveness of AHSD at every one percentage point (i.e., 0.01) change in CULTURE.
The positive impact of CULTURE on the distribution of Indonesian AHSD comes from destination countries that are culturally linked to Indonesia.
This paper has presented an augmented gravity model to explain the spatial distribution of AHSD of the ASEAN-5 countries.
The study shows that the AHSD from the five ASEAN countries are internationally mobile and unaffected by geographical distance.
Linkages to home country in the form of familial ties, hometown relations, business networks, academic and research cooperation enable AHSD to maintain a transnational livelihood.
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- Ahsania Mission Cancer Hospital
- Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology
- Ahsen's Adapted Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire