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The Commission and AIHW released the Australian results of this work in the May 2014 Exploring Healthcare Variation in Australia: Analyses Resulting from an OECD Study discussion paper and summary document (Fig.
(3) Major data centres such as the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) and the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) now encourage standardised use of the Indigenous status question (AIHW 2009:9), which is 'Are you of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?', with response options of 'No', 'Yes, Aboriginal' and 'Yes, Torres Strait Islander', with individuals of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin marking both respective boxes.
The Multi-Stage Median algorithm is described in more detail in Appendix One, and is closely related to the AIHW-ABS (AIHW & ABS 2012) 'within and across data sets' method.
T1D is described as the destruction of beta--cells by an autoimmune process that leads to the dependence on exogenous insulin (AIHW 2009).
This use of Ecstasy among young Australians warrants further attention as research has not only demonstrated that recent use of Ecstasy is associated with higher rates of mental illness as and psychological distress (AIHW 2011), it has also shown that early initiation to drug use is associated with a range of negative consequences.
Psychiatry is a small but important component of the medical workforce; in 2006, there were 3,258 psychiatrists (and psychiatrists in training, including overseas psychiatrists in training) which represented 10.8 per cent of all medical specialists, and 5.2 per cent of all employed medical practitioners in Australia (AIHW 2008a, tables 1.1, 5.8 and 5.11).
"The proportion of older women giving birth has continued to rise over the past 18 years," said Associate Professor Elizabeth Sullivan, of the AIHW.
The problems are certainly more evident in developed nations and one reason for this may be that the populations tend to be less influenced by cultural and religious restrictions on alcohol and illicit substance use (AIHW 2001, 33), although there is considerable variation in the patterns of substance use between countries (AIHW 2001, table p.36).
Indeed, recent Australian figures on childhood disability establish that 85 per cent of primary caters of children with disability are the children's mothers, and nearly another five per cent are women relatives and family friends (AIHW, 2004).
It provides a link between senior mathematics and epidemiology, and points the reader to a source of cancer data from AIHW which could be used in the classroom for a variety of exercises or modelling.
Most epidemiological indicators suggest a markedly low health status in mortality and morbidity among Australian men (AIHW, 2004a; Draper, Turrell, & Oldenburg, 2004; Lee & Owens 2002; NSW Health, 2004a).
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