The median concentration of AOPP was as follows: 4.72 [micro]mol/mg protein (range: 1.58-9.97) in the AAA group, 3.70 [micro]mol/mg protein (range: 2.45-7.41) in the AIOD group, 1.05 [micro]mol/mg protein (range: 0.16-2.72) in the PRE group, and 1.42 [micro]mol/mg protein (range: 0.25-2.76) in the HD group, respectively.
In AIOD group, AOPP concentration was found significantly correlated both with C=O and U concentration.
In this respect, patients with "classic" atherosclerosis (AAA and AIOD) and "nonclassic" (PRE and HD) atherosclerosis were qualified for the present study.
It is clear that presence of plasma AOPP and C=O in AAA, AIOD, and CKD patients indicates the effects of oxidative stress to plasma proteins.
Based on literature data, it is difficult to conclude which pathway of oxidative stress dominates in AAA and AIOD. Clinical observations indicate that oxidative stress occurs locally in AAA but is more systemic in AIOD [1, 20, 22].
On the basis of our results, we can conclude that types of atherosclerosis, "classic" or "nonclassic," associated with AAA, AIOD, and CKD and, consequently, theirs accompanying oxidative stress have a different impact on modification of proteins.
We found the highest concentrations of hsCRP and WBC count, but lower UA level in AIOD. This suggests that inflammation that accompanies AIOD is probably more intensified and results in an increased oxidative stress.
Interestingly, significantly lower UA and higher concentration of WBC were observed in AIOD group.
The main quality of the present study is establishing the effect of three different atherosclerosis-mediated diseases (AAA, AIOD, and CKD) on the selected modification of proteins.
Vascular disease, AIOD and AAA, and chronic kidney disease, PRE and HD, contribute to formation of advanced oxidation protein products and carbonylation of proteins.
In AIOD, positive correlation of AOPP and C=O and negative correlation of U and both AOPP and C=O, higher hsCRP, FB, and WBC levels suggest that inflammation accompanying AIOD is probably more intense and results in an increased oxidative stress.
Box and whisker plots show median (central line), upper, and lower quartiles (box) and range excluding outliers (whiskers); (a) significant differences versus AAA, (b) significant differences versus AIOD, and (c) significant differences versus PRE p [less than or equal to] 0.05.