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The roll-over shape can be measured in an amputee-independent manner from data generated using a test rig [2-3,16,18,32-34], in which case it can be considered to be part of the AIPPs description of the prosthesis.
The AIPP roll-over model has also been used in combination with in vivo gait analysis to explore the relationships between AIPPs and gait.
showed that, when aligning different prostheses (of quite different AIPPs), prosthetists appear to converge on alignments for each of the prostheses that result in similar in vivo roll-over shapes .
Roll-Over Shape as Model for Representing AIPPs of Prosthetic Feet
In this article, we have emphasized the concept of AIPPs (defined in the "Introduction").
The most important advantage is that of distinguishing between properties that describe the overall behavior of the prosthesis as directly experienced by the amputee (AIPPs) and the underlying design details (e.g., subcomponent geometries, material densities, and Young's moduli).
The sagittal plane behavior of a passive transtibial prosthesis during gait can be described by the following AIPPs:
The authors believe that, if described in sufficient detail (e.g., by extending the roll-over shape description to capture three-dimensional geometry), the AIPPs listed here provide a comprehensive description of the functional properties of a passive, transtibial prosthesis as experienced by the amputee.
Proper characterization of AIPPs is essential to the research stage of the design approach outlined in Figure 1.
An AIPPs model could also be used as part of a gait simulation to explore the effects of AIPPs on gait, the advantages of which are that it allows for rapid and extensive design-test iterations that would not be possible with human subjects.
If the AIPP approach to characterizing transtibial prostheses is to be of real value to the prosthetics industry and amputees, there needs to be agreement on the set of AIPPs and how they are defined.
AIPPs can be represented as either lumped parameter or roll-over models.
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