The AKN k - [epsilon] turbulence model of Abe-Kondoh-Nagano  is based off of the Nagano-Tagawa k - [epsilon] model .
epsilon]], the AKN model is shown to successfully predict the separating and reattaching flows downstream of a backward-facing step, which involve most of the essential physics of complex turbulent flows .
A summary of the model constants for realizable k - [epsilon] and AKN k - [epsilon] turbulence models is presented in Table 1.
The front downforce prediction from the AKN k - [epsilon] is almost identical to the wind tunnel test data, whilst, the realizable k - [epsilon] model shows a 27-count deficit compared to the wind tunnel data.
In terms of drag predictions, the AKN k - [epsilon] turbulence model slightly over-predicted the vehicle drag by about 1.
The fact that, for most of the vehicle body, the AKN k - [epsilon] model dominates the downforce accumulation plot provides the proof of more induced drag as a likely cause of the larger drag prediction.
Here, the AKN k - [epsilon] turbulence model produced a strong negative pressure on the bottom of the pan, compared to the other two models.
Close to the lower end of the spoiler, the AKN k - [epsilon] and SST k - [omega] models (more obvious with SST k - [omega] than AKN k - [epsilon]) show a thin span-wise region of relatively lower pressure.
Therapy is multimodal, with some behavioral components, including avoidance of mechanical factors that can exacerbate AKN.
Few studies exist to support one treatment regime over another for AKN, Dr.
In a pilot study of 16 patients with AKN who received five sessions of laser hair removal, all had a marked reduction in papules and pustules at one year of follow-up (Eur J Dermatol.