A-Z stressors score showed a moderately strong positive correlation with AKUADS score both using Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (r and rS(500)=0.54, p<0.001) (Figure-1).
Although women with alive children were significantly more stressed (p= 0.002), but not more depressed and anxious compared to women without living kids (p= 0.330), both A-Z Stress Score (p= 0.001) and AKUADS score (p= 0.005) were significantly higher among women with more than 3 children.
Difference in the A-Z stress score among the three trimesters was not significant while that in AKUADS score significantly different, with a small effect size (p= 0.003).
Both AZSS score (p <0.001) and AKUADS scores (p<0.001) differed significantly between the two socio-economic groups, with those having incomes in excess of Rs10,000 per month being less stressed and depressed-anxious compared to those with income less than Rs10,000 per month.
The AKUADS and SSI scores were significantly higher in girls (49.9 and 120.25) than in boys (43.7 and 113.7).
An interesting finding in our study was lack of significant difference in AKUADS and SSI scores between students of years one to five.
At the end of the study it was seen that of a total of 325 students, 207(63.7%) scored below 21 on the AKUADS of which 61(29.5%) were male and 146(70.5%) were female, while 118(36.3%) students scored above 20 on the AKUADS of which 33(28%) were male and 85(72%) were female.
In our study the highest number of students scoring above 20 in the AKUADS was found to be in the second year of study (28, 23.7%) followed by first year (27, 22.9%) and lowest in the third year (18, 15.3%) which is in correlation to Sidana et al14 in which highest RDA was found in first and second year students.
Table 1: Association of depression and anxiety with gender, academic year and family history of depression according to AKUADS score.
Further, a positive correlation is found between SSES-Urdu Version and RSE (r =.49) and a negative correlation is found between SSES-Urdu Version and AKUADS (r = -.51) and BSSI (r = -.29) indicating good convergent validity of the scale.
The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS; Ali, Reza, Khan, and Jehan, 1998) is 25-items indigenously developed screening instrument for anxiety and depression.
The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS
)9 was adopted as the screening instrument.