[X.sub.i,t] is a vector of basic control variables for unemployment in which we include the inflation rate to control for Phillips curve effects, real per-capita GDP, Spending on ALMP
as a percentage of GDP, the real minimum wage, and trade union density.
The government's active labor market programs (ALMPs
) have provided short-term job opportunities to disadvantaged sectors, but the country must map out programs and policies that will promote private investments to generate more employment.
Supporting child care through various incentives, fighting harassment in the workplace, creating public announcements on television encouraging women to work, continuing the existing premium incentives for youth and women and spending more resources on the ALMP
should also be noted.
As Baines and Hardill (2008) observe, volunteering activity has become increasingly aligned with welfare policy and parcelled into ALMP
initiatives to combat unemployment.
(7) See, for example, O'Higgins (2010) for a more detailed discussion of the ALMP
- and their efficacy--introduced during the current recession.
Wowchuk noted the ALMP
will have to work with corporate partners in order to pick up that slack.
Training programs make up the largest share of ALMP
(7) While flexicurity is rooted in the Dutch Flexibility and Security Act of 1999 (Visser 2005), the European discourse was mainly centred on the Danish variant, typically encapsulated by the "Golden Triangle" of lax employment protection standards coupled with generous unemployment benefits and extensive ALMPs
(Madsen 2005; Wilthagen 2005).
One of the goals of ALMP
is to keep all unemployed persons engaged with employment related activities.
Share of spending on active labour market programmes, 2007 ALMP
per unemployed worker ALMP
as per cent of GDP as per cent of GDP per capita (1) 0.7 MEX 0.0 1.9 GBR 0.1 2.4 JPN 0.1 6.4 KOR 0.1 4.5 USA 0.1 4.5 CZE 0.1 6.3 AUS 0.1 4.6 CAN 0.2 6.6 HUN 0.2 12.9 NZL 0.2 15.4 ITA 0.4 9.3 PRT 0.4 15.0 OECD 0.4 9.5 POL 0.4 24.6 LUX 0.4 34.2 NOR 0.5 22.8 CHE 0.5 21.7 IRL 0.5 11.6 DEU 0.5 23.0 AUT 0.5 16.5 ESP 0.7 39.8 NLD 0.7 19.3 FRA 0.7 20.1 FIN 0.7 28.3 SWE 0.9 52.8 DNK 1.0 32.1 BEL 1.1 64.9 SVK 1.1 (1.) Countries are ranked from highest to lowest labour market program share of DGP in 2007.
Put more emphasis on Labour market training for subsidised training rather young unemployed, temporary than on subsidised employment, laid-off workers and recently especially for the older dismissed workers in order to unemployed, to direct them prevent long-term unemployment away from declining industry is a priority in the ALMP
sectors towards more dynamic during the economic crisis ones.