We conducted another population-based study about 10 years ago in three villages of Matlab and observed an annual ALRI
incidence of 30/100 CYO (7).
This implies that the CRA may have slightly overestimated the global burden of disease caused by indoor air pollution-attributable ALRI
, COPD, and lung cancer.
Furthermore, the surveys showed that the ALRI
programme was lagging behind and could provide a measure of the potential gains in child survival if the number of ALRI
-related deaths could be reduced.
The burden of ALRI
falls particularly heavily on women, who do most of the cooking, and on infants and children, who spend a great deal of time near their mothers and are highly susceptible to ALRI
Viruses are more important in the aetiology of nonpneumonia ALRI
To provide an even more complete indicator of the burden of disease, a severity measure can be added to incidence and duration, or alternatively, ALRI
and acute upper respiratory infections (AURI) can be analyzed separately.
10] emissions through greater cooking and other domestic activities at later ages, women are approximately twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with ARI or ALRI
continues to be deadly in developing countries despite the availability of modern therapeutic agents, largely because of lack of access to medical care and such predisposing factors as undernutrition, micronutrient deficiency, poor housing, and dirty fuels.
While MLRWR had reasonable administration capacity for externally financed projects including ADB's financed projects, it should be confirmed during project preparation whether ALRI
inherited the capacity from MLRWR.
The WHO definition of ALRI
was used and all cases are graded into severe and very severe pneumonia.
The most common bacterial causes of pneumonia have typically been Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus;  however, the increasing use of Haemophilus influenza type b and pneumococcal vaccines in the Expanded Programme of Immunization in many countries has dramatically reduced the role of the latter two organisms in the pathogenesis of the disease, and has also reduced the importance of bacterial pathogens as a cause of ALRI
Blood was collected for culture at clinician discretion but encouraged for all patients with ALRI
and children <5 years of age who had sepsis.