Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) infants with ALRTI, (2) age <2 years (excluding neonates), (3) no respiratory tract infection in the preceding 2 months, and (4) informed consent for lung function tests obtained from their parents.
One-year follow-up for infants with ALRTI was performed by questionnaires.
Lung function measurements of infants with ALRTI were conducted 1 day after diagnosis during the acute phase and 3 months after the first lung function test.
During the study period, 1859 infants with ALRTI were seen in the outpatient Department of Respiration of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University.
Although AGE and ALRTI were responsible for more than 50% of admissions, there was no statistically significant association between diagnosis and outcome (p=0.17).
The two most common causes of death in children <1 year of age were complicated ALRTI and AGE, both potentially treatable conditions.
ALRTI, AGE, birth asphyxia and complications of prematurity are reported as the main causes of death in children <5 years of age.
Comparing deaths, transfers and successful discharges of neonates and children admitted to a general high-care unit Successful Deaths Transfers discharges (n=12) (n=44) (n=119) Male:female ratio 2:1 1:1 1.4:1 Age (mo) Mean 2.6 11.9 7.8 Median 2.4 4.06 3.9 Range 0-9.2 0-12 0-9.5 Admissions 83 45 64 after hours (%) Duration of stay (days) Mean 1.6 1.5 2.9 Median 1.01 1.2 2.0 Range 0.04-5 0.08-5.1 0.04-13.4 WAZ Mean -1.60 SD -1.40 SD -1.91 SD Median -1.30 SD -1.49 SD -1.63 SD Range -4.80-0.89 SD -5.20-1.88 SD -6.05-1.57 SD Interventions (%) 0 8 7 18 1 17 48 52 2 50 32 22 3 25 13 8 ALRTI (%) 33 32 35 AGE (%) 25 23 37 Fig.
The incidence of RSV-associated severe ALRTI in children from developing and developed countries (5.5/1 000 v.
 Although HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI are at increased risk of hospitalisation and death, this could be due to greater susceptibility to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and other co-infections.
The diagnosis of ALRTI was reached based on clinical criteria (fever, cough, tachypnea, rales or wheezes on auscultation), supplemented by radiological (hyperinflation, opacities) and gasometric (hypoxemia, hypercapnia, respiratory acidosis) criteria.
Results given are based on the analysis of 21 infants aged between zero and 12 months hospitalized in the PICU for ALRTI. Regarding patient profile, median age was 2.4 months, 12 subjects were male (52.2%) and eight (38.1%) tested positive on PCR for RSV.