Structurally, AMA1 is a type I integral membrane protein, consisting of an ectoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain .
In Toxoplasma gondii, rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) is the receptor for AMA1 .
A team led by led by Sheetij Dutta, from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, USA, focused on a protein called AMA1 needed by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite to invade blood cells and cause disease.
The challenge with the malaria parasite in general and its AMA1 surface protein in particular is that both exist as multiple strains.
Autonomous plasmid replication in Aspergillus nidulans: AMA1
and MATE elements.
It has, for example, been shown that affinity of antibodies against AMA1
increased with age, and the presence of high affinity antibodies in plasma against MSP2-3D7 was associated with protection against malaria .
This suggests that the AMA1
region of ANEp2, which supports autonomous plasmid replication in other fungi, also supports autonomous replication in A.
It is hoped that the result of this preliminary investigation will suggest the possible mechanism of antigen delivery by either entrapment in and/or adsorption unto the antigen (AMA1
) in or onto the chitosan nanoparticles and subsequently decorating the nanoparticle-bearing antigen with other immune boosters such as uric acid (UA) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) for a longer-lasting immunity against the disease (13-15).
Scientists led by Dr Subhra Chakraborty, from the National Institute of Plant Genome Research in New Delhi, India, wrote: "Our approach of using AmA1
to increase the nutritional quality in tuber crops, particularly in potato, has been successful.
It says scientists have now studied Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1
), a protein found on the cell of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite causing the most deadly malaria.
falciparum 3D7 AMA-1 in AS02A or AS02B AMA1-C1 Rec AMA1
derived from the FVO and 3D7 clones of P.
In this instance, scientists studied Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1
), a protein found on the cell membrane of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite causing the most deadly malaria.