AML-M2acute myelogenous leukemia of the subgroup M2
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The aberrant expression of CD7 showed positivity in 28 (26.4%) cases, most frequently expressed in AML-M2 and CD19 was expressed in 1(1.1%) case.
In Patel et al., the male to female ratio was 1:1.1.19 In our study AML-M2 (47.2%) was the most frequent subtype similar to Gosh study (AML-M2=34%).16 Conversely, in few other international studies3,5,14, other AML subtypes predominated.
In case 1, morphological diagnosis was that of AML-M3 while on FCM; HLA-DR and CD34 were positive and was reported as AML-M2. In case 2, morphology suggested AML-M5 but FCM showed negative expression for HLA-DR, CD34, and CD14, reported as AML-M3.
AML-M2 was the most common subtype followed by AML-M4, the prognosis was best in AML-M2 and M3.
Similar findings have been reported by studies from the United States,11,14 India5 and a recent study from Karachi.17 Additionally, AML-M2 has been reported to be the most frequent subtype from Japan,10 and as the second-most common subtype in many other countries.2,12,13,16,18 Although we found APL as a frequent presentation, but it was not the most common presenting subtype as reported in studies from India and Iraq.2,16
Similarly, PAS staining (for cell surface glycoproteins)was performed for 42 AML patients and only 13 were found positive for PAS, which included 5 patients of AML-M1 and 3 of AML-M2. PAS test is characteristically positive in leukaemias from lymphoid series, but sometimes it is also positive in AML patients.5 Additionally, matrix changes are also observed in AML.
AML-M2 was found to be the most common FAB subtype among AML in children and adults.
AML-M2 was the most frequent FAB AML subtype among both paediatric and adult age groups; diagnosed in 72 (41.6%) of the patients followed by AML M4 in 31 (17.9%) patients.
AML-M2 was the most frequent AML subtype among both adult and pediatric age groups in our study.
Although it is more common in monocytic leukaemias, extramedullary infiltration is reported in AML-M2, especially those with translocation t (8;21).
Remission was achieved in more than 50% of AML-M2 patients (52.6%), but in those with t(8;21)-in 100% of cases.
This aberration was uniformly distributed between FAB AML-M2 and M4.