AMPARalpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor
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Patch clamp recordings of the type I SGN afferent dendrite convincingly show that excitatory postsynaptic currents are AMPAR mediated and that NMDARs do not contribute to synaptic transmission at the type I SGN synapse under physiological conditions [34-37].
Importantly, under zinc deficiency conditions electrophysiological recording revealed a reduction of glutamate, both AMPAR and NMDAR currents, and a reduction in the total number of cells responding to glutamate stimulation [136].
The magnesium ions may block these receptor channels in a physiological situation with voltage-controlled method; however, in the stressing conditions induced by TBI, the cell depolarization largely by activating AMPAR may extrude the magnesium ions [22, 23].
The PDZ domain of PSD-95 binds to different postsynaptic proteins; for example, PDZ2 interacts with NR2 and NR1 of NMDARs [246] and stargazin interacts with PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 to regulate AMPAR synaptic numbers [247].
Knockdown but Not Overexpression of Endophilin2 Resists Oligomeric A[beta]-Induced AMPAR Dysfunction.
NMDAR and AMPAR have critical roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CNS [68].
Astrocytes were shown to express [Ca.sup.2+]-permeable AMPAR [66, 67] and mGluR [68], the latter specifically in PAPs [4].
First, we investigated the contribution of AMPARs to evoked fEPSPs and spontaneous activity, using CNQX, an AMPAR inhibitor.
NMDAR have characteristic properties unlike that of AMPAR and kainate receptor family, exhibiting a strong voltage-dependent block by [Mg.sup.2+], high permeability to [Ca.sup.2+], and slow gating kinetics.
Concerning income levels, according to a corporate executive (female) at Ampar, '...between a junior manager and a worker in the UK, if you include overtime pay then it (the gap)'s not very much at all, nearly the same...but here the difference can be around four to five times, it's a totally different ballgame...'.
Antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), alpha-ami-no-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), LGI1, CASPR2, and gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor ([GABA.sub.B]R) were investigated by a cell-based immunofluorescence assay (Euro-immun, Luebeck, Germany).