(2) Professor, Department of Community Medicine, AMSR, Bathinda, Punjab.
(3) Professor and HOD, Department of Community Medicine, AMSR, Bathinda, Punjab.
To generate monthly average ice concentrations, we used data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR
) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Observing System AQUA satellite (known as AMSR-EOS or, more commonly, AMSR-E).
Name Input PMW sensor Temporal Spatial resolution resolution IMERG (v.4) GMI, TMI, AMSR-E, 0.5 hourly 0.1[degrees] SSMIS, MHS GSMap-gauged (v.6) TMI, GMI, AMSR-E, 1 hourly 0.1[degrees] SSM/I, SSMIS, AMSU, MHS, AMSR
, AMSR2 Name Coverage & start time Latency IMERG (v.4) 60[degrees]N-S/Mar.
Until very recently, multifrequency (~6.9 to >89 GHz) satellite microwave radiometers [e.g., Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), TRMM, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR
), AMSU, Conical Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E), and WindSat] all operated at frequencies higher, or equal to, C band and, if available, only acquired data from one single C-band channel.
The AMSR2, a follow-up microwave sensor to the AMSR
for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), is a passive microwave instrument that has been providing global near-surface SM data since its launch in May 2012.
This gives SMAP a distinct advantage over many spaceborne ocean wind sensors such as C-band [Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)] or Ku-band [Rapid Scatterometer (RapidScat)] scatterometers and radiometers operating at higher frequencies [Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), WindSat, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR
), and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI)], which either lose sensitivity at very high winds or degrade in rainy conditions.