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Therefore, the interval [30, 50] is deemed a reasonable value range based on the analysis on the degree of effect of different APCFs on the AMVT, APMG, and ANOG.
In particular, the change trends of AMVT, APMG, and ANOG were generally consistent, as presented in Figure 6, specifically Figure 5(d).
Following the adoption of the low charge policy, e.g., APCF = 5 yuan/day x vehicle, the AMVT (curve 1) exhibited a decrease since about 2014, as exhibited in Figure 6(a).
As a result, the AMVT values descended until 2013, wherein its descending range continuously increased.
(i) AMVT (curve 1): The AMVT exhibited a continuous decrease.
According to Table 10, in the presence of a low charge policy (APCF=5), the AMVT, APMG, ANOG, and DAP under a high charge policy exhibited an obvious decrease, which indicates that the implementation of a high charge policy effectively reduced motor vehicle exhaust emissions to restrain the intensification of "haze" pollution degree in Beijing.
An increase of the fee to a certain extent, especially following the implementation of a high charge policy (Figures 6(e) and 6(f)), not only reduced the AMVT and alleviated traffic jams in cities, but also effectively reduced the APMG and ANOG, thereby reducing the DAP.
According to a comparison on the different schemes, at the end of the analogue simulation period, the high charge policy functioned as follows: in terms of the emission reduction of the motor vehicle exhaust, the APMG and ANOG exhibited reductions of 26.52% and 21.29%, respectively; in terms of alleviating traffic jams, the AMVT exhibited a 31.01% decrease; and in terms of reducing the degree of air pollution, the DAP exhibited a 12.50% decrease.
(2) Three high charge policy functions were generated based on a comparison of the simulation results of the different charging schemes: the implementation of high charge policies not only reduced the AMVT and alleviated traffic jams (Figures 6(e), 6(f), and 7(a); Table 10) but also effectively reduced the APMG and ANOG (Figures 6(e), 6(f), 7(b), and 7(c); Tables 5 and 10), thereby further reducing the DAP (Figures 6(e), 6(f), and 7(d); Table 10).
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