In this study, the modality principle was applied to all four information presentation types (AN, ACN, ANCT, and ACNW) to solve problems that arise from the complexity of the learning content and to moderate the learners' intrinsic cognitive load.
The students in the first group were given an AN WOE; the second group received an ACN WOE, the third group received an ANCT WOE; and the fourth group received an ACNW WOE.
The four types of WOE were constructed as shown in Figure 1: AN, ACN, ANCT, and ACNW.
The ANCT groups had the greatest intrinsic load during the pre-training phase, and the ACN group had the lowest intrinsic load.
The germane load generated in the ANCT group was the highest (see Table 6).
However, ANCT was found to be the most effective in accelerating the development of the germane cognitive load during training.
The ACNW group exhibited the greatest comprehension of the learning content during the pre-training phase, whereas the ANCT group showed the least comprehension (see Table 8).