The federated model of regulation led to state resistance to a national approach to regulation, specifically resisting a national examination (ANRAC 1976), a national approach to registration (ANRAC 1978), and national behavioural/clinical competencies (ANRAC 1982).
It is of note that Styles attended the 1990 ANRAC meeting as a guest of the Australian Nursing Federation.
At ANRAC 1988, the ANRAC Competencies were presented to the meeting and a research project to validate the competencies in clinical practice was commissioned, with financial support secured from the regulatory authorities, the Federal government, two Branches of the Australian Nursing Federation (Qld and SA), and the Florence Nightingale Committee.
By the 1980 ANRAC meeting, the increasing numbers of college-based entry to practice programs raised the concern that "...
Analysis of the first competency standards technology, in the form of the 1988 and 1990 ANRAC Competencies, was undertaken by comparing it to two other systems published in the preceding five years (RANF 1983, NSWNRB 1986).
* The NSWNRB Competencies (1986) included a competency (objective) related to the performance of clinical procedures that was not included in the 1988 or 1990 ANRAC lists; and
Two new competencies appeared in the ANRAC (1988) list.
Through their fieldwork, the research team became aware of the limitations of the ANRAC Competencies 1988.
The exclusion of clinical skills from the ANRAC Competencies generated widespread concerns about the ability of the graduates of tertiary-based programs to work as a nurse (Reid 1994).
This research shows the political and ethical influences on the ANRAC Competencies as a classification system by showing who was advantaged by what was included and excluded in the competency lists.
The original ANRAC Competencies, published in 1990, was designed to legitimate the occupation of nursing as a profession, consistent with the argument for the transfer of nursing education to the higher education sector.