NAFTA takes on a value of one if the host country is one of the NAFTA member countries, ANZCERTA takes on a value of one if the host country is one of the ANZCERTA member countries and EU 1992 takes on a value of one if the host country is one of the EU member countries and the time period is 1992 or thereafter.
However, in the full sample, being a member of NAFTA or ANZCERTA, did not lead to additional FDI inflows; in fact, compared to the other nations, NAFTA members appeared to have received less FDI.
While we find the EU, NAFTA, and ANZCERTA to be particularly apt in capturing the 'home region' criteria insofar as the regionalization/globalization debate is concerned (see, for example, Fratianni and Oh 2009), clearly other RIAs should also be tested to see whether similar results obtain.
However, the remaining restrictions could not be dealt with under the existing agreements and ANZCERTA was introduced.
Originally, ANZCERTA provided for free trade in goods, and by 1990 all tariffs and quotas were removed.
Legalism, asymmetry, and proposed level of integration Legalism Pact Asymmetry None or low SACU High UDEAC High ANZCERTA High EEA High CARICOM High GCC High EFTA-Israel High EFTA-Bulgaria High EFTA-Estonia High EFTA-Latvia High EFTA-Lithuania High EFTA-Slovenia High Hungary-Slovenia High Bulgaria-Czech Republic High U.
IMF (1994) codes ANZCERTA as a free trade sees, but because it has achieved labor mobility, full coverage of services, and a competition policy, it is much more like a common market--or, given the extent of legal harmonization, an economic union.
Israel Bulgaria--Slovak Republic EFTA 1960 Romania--Slovak Republic EFTA-Israel AFTA EFTA-Bulgaria Mano River Union EFTA-Estonia EFTA-Latvia EFTA-Lithuania EFTA-Slovenia EEA CEFTA Hungary-Slovenia Bulgaria-Czech Republic SACU UDEAC ANZCERTA GCC Total 16 47 63 Note: P ([X.
ANZCERTA (Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement).
Sin embargo, casos como el del ANZCERTA
demuestran que en algunos casos un ACP puede ayudar a que el sector empresarial sintonice con la necesidad de ajustarse a un contexto de liberalizacion comercial y, de este modo, abrir el camino para una posterior liberalizacion NMF amplia, realizada unilateralmente en los casos de Australia y Nueva Zelandia.