Argentina, Australia and Canada usually adopt the value of 20%, at least if there is some evidence that this percentage is not suitable for livestock watering or for a particular substance (ANZECC
, 2000; ARGENTINA, 2005a; ENVIRONMENT CANADA, 1999).
, ARMCANZ (2000) 'Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality 2000, No.
For children, an assumed soil ingestion rate is 100 mg/day (ANZECC
and NHMRC 1992); thus, a BaP soil guideline value would be
discussion paper on a national approach to firewood collection and use in Australia was an encouraging move by Australia's council of conservation Ministers.
The sediment contaminant levels mostly did not exceed Australian and New Zealand standards (ANZECC
2000) for minimal environmental effects.
(2000) Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality.
The selection of thresholds was based on current ANZECC
guidelines: Zn 200mg/kg, Pb 300mg/kg, Cu 60mg/kg, Cd 3mg/kg, total PAH 20mg/kg, and BaP 1 mg/kg.
1995) and soil quality guidelines (ANZECC
and NH&MRC 1992).
2000a, 2000b), the heavy metals can have adverse impacts on water-body quality and human health (Lynam and Pfeifer 1991; Scanlon 1991; Trombulak and Frissell 2000).
1999); Hicks found elevated concentrations of aluminium, arsenic, iron, and zinc in surface and soil water within the bunded area and concentrations of zinc, aluminium, and iron in excess of the ANZECC
and ARMCANZ (2000) guidelines in water discharging into the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
Almost all samples taken exceeded the ANZECC
guideline values (ANZECC-ARMCANZ 2000) for TP in slightly disturbed New Zealand lowland streams (0.033 mgTP/L).
However, in all 3 treatments in this study, TP concentrations were still greater than the default trigger value of 0.05 mg P/L for physical and chemical stressors in lowland rivers for south-east Australia (ANZECC