The patients who had the greatest improvement in OA symptoms (postsurgical score of 0 on the AORC
) were in the RYGB group (71%), although good outcomes were also seen for 63% of the LSG and 51% of the LAGB groups.
Direct per-person costs attributable to AORC were estimated using a series of four-stage regression analyses (6) that modeled the probability and magnitude of medical care expenditures among adults aged [greater than or equal to] 18 years.
Indirect per-person costs attributable to AORC were derived from a similar four-stage analysis that modeled the probability of employment and the magnitude of lost earnings among persons aged 18-64 years.
In 2003, total direct costs attributable to AORC were $80.8 billion, with an estimated 46.1 million persons aged [greater than or equal to]18 years reporting AORC, and average per-person direct costs of $1,752 (Table 1).
The AORC, which is currently solely funded by the Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) through the Public Protector South Africa, helps the African Ombudsman and Mediators Association maintain peace and stability in Africa through, among other programmes, capacity building and research.
Other areas of cooperation involved possible training opportunities, including benchmarking visits from the countries concerned in assistance of the AORC and the Public Protector South Africa.
In this analysis, direct costs were medical-care expenditures, and indirect costs were lost earnings attributable to AORC. A total of 22,435 respondents aged [greater than or equal to] 18 years had complete data for all covariates.
The revised total cost of AORC in the United States was $86.2 billion (i.e., $51.1 billion in direct costs plus $35.1 billion in indirect costs).
Editorial Note: This report presents enhanced population-based indirect and total cost estimates of AORC for states and the nation in 1997, based on a revised statistical model.
AORC cases from MEPS were defined by using the three-digit codes from the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) * selected by the National Arthritis Data Workgroup (5).
The incremental cost attributable to AORC for each person was calculated as the difference between observed costs and corresponding expected values, which was determined by applying parameter estimates from persons without AORC to estimates from persons with AORC.
The attributable fraction (AF) for direct costs was estimated by dividing the sum of AORC-attributable medical costs for all AORC patients by the sum of medical costs for all persons in the sample for overall total and the four treatment categories.