In addition, the change was very limited as the APCF exceeded 50 yuan/day x vehicle.
Therefore, an effective APCF range of [30, 50] was chosen based on the development trends analysis of the change rates of the main variables.
Following the adoption of the low charge policy, e.g., APCF = 5 yuan/day x vehicle, the AMVT (curve 1) exhibited a decrease since about 2014, as exhibited in Figure 6(a).
According to Figure 6(f), curve 1 first exhibited a slow rise (before 2013) and a subsequent sharp descent following the adoption of the high charge policy (APCF = 50 yuan/day*vehicle).
According to Figures 6(a)-6(f), the APCF exhibited a continuous increase, thereby generating a change in the rules of all the curves as follows:
Within a certain range, the increase in APCF aided in the descent of the AMVT, thereby further alleviating the traffic pressures.
(iii) DAP (curve 4): The DAP exhibited an overall decline, especially following the implementation of a high charge policy (APCF [member of] [40, 50]).
Therefore, the APCF policy effectively reduced the AMVT and enabled an about 31.01% decrease in 2020.