The results show that the income increase owing to the APFD modestly improves newborns' health at birth.
We divide the treatment period into two distinct periods: one anticipatory period, after the legislation of the APFD in April 1980, but before distribution; and a realized period, after the distribution of the APFD began in June 1982.
From these 78 months, we obtain the following three observable periods: 27 months for the pretreatment period (January 1978-March 1980); 26 months for the anticipatory period, when individuals expected to receive the APFD (April 1980-May 1982); and 25 months for the realized period, when individuals began to receive the APFD (June 1982-June 1984).
Importantly, the difference-indifference estimate b captures the anticipatory effect and c captures the realized effect of the APFD on the health outcome.
If people's beliefs about the APFD amount to be distributed were accurate, the permanent income hypothesis suggests that the effects of the anticipatory and realized periods will be the same.
The rest of the states in the United States did not benefit from the APFD and, thus, can be regarded as potential control states.
Emma and Linux process tracking tool were operated on and the results were quantified using the APFD metric.
The results derived from APFD have showed the advantage of using feedback mechanism for some objects in terms of early fault detection.
in 2001  proposed a new cost cognizant metric APFDc (adapted from APFD) that was used for measuring the rate of fault detection and included varying test cases and fault costs.
In addition to the above three techniques, three more techniques (Total statement/function coverage and fault index) and optimal (instead of random) techniques were analyzed in terms of APFD (initially explained in ) by Elbaum et al.
APFD demonstrated that the random ordering outperformed the repeated coverage maximization for GCC while not for Jikes and Jvac.
As the granularity level decreased, higher APFD values were observed.