Reactive Species Generated from APPJ according to Feeding Gases.
To understand the biological effects of APPJ in solutions, [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], OH*, and N[O.sup.-.sub.x] were quantitatively analyzed (Figure 1(c)).
In order to investigate the effects of respective air and [N.sub.2] APPJ treatment on mammalian cell membrane, we exposed canine red blood cells (RBCs) in PBS solutions.
Our air APPJ treatment induced RBCs to form stomatocyte-like structures, while [N.sub.2] APPJ treatment induced echinocyte-like structures.
As RBC morphology determines the rheological properties, their deformability was measured after APPJ treatment.
In addition, we observed differential color changes of RBCs after air and [N.sub.2] APPJ treatment (Figure 2(c)), which implied the oxidation of intracellular hemoglobins (Hbs).
The use of a microwave-powered APPJ Ar/He/[O.sub.2] plasma jet for the local oxidation of silicon was reported in reference (55).
For example, the deposition of water-dispersible PEGylated gold nanoparticles by DBD APPJ for bio-applications was reported in reference (21).
Deposition of Ti[O.sub.2] thin films by APPJ was reported by Fakhouri et al.
(61) demonstrated that microporous nitrogen-doped carbon layers can be deposited by APPJ for biomedical applications.
APPJ modification techniques could be used to improve the electrical and optical properties of oxide films grown by other methods.
Besides deposition of Ti[O.sub.2] coatings by the APPJ, (60) plasma jet method could be used for treatment of the Ti[O.sub.2] coatings deposited by other methods.