In this section, we introduce an APPR DoA estimation algorithm for LWAs.
The APPR algorithm calculates the adjacent power pattern ratio between the maximum received power pattern and the adjacent patterns.
Secondly, the APPR is measured for the received power and it can be presented as
The APPR and MUSIC algorithms were designed to perform the DoA estimation using reconfigurable CRLH-LWA.
In Figure 3, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of the MUSIC and APPR algorithms as a function of the SNR is presented.
Figures 6 and 7 depict the simulated performance of the APPR and MUSIC algorithm as a function of the DoA when the SNR is fixed to 10 dB.
While the teachers union initially supported APPR, a coalition of teachers, administrators, and parents soon opposed the program.
In theory, the APPR system is intended to ensure that every classroom has an effective teacher, promote professional growth among teachers, and encourage improvement in classroom instructional practice (NYSED, 2014).
How then do we introduce the effect of APPR on student learning into the discussion?
It is virtually impossible to judge the effect of APPR by evaluating longitudinal results from New York state assessments because of changes in the design of the state assessment and their associated cut scores during APPR implementation.
In this analysis, we identified New York schools that administered the MAP assessments for four consecutive years, starting with the school year before APPR implementation (2010-11) and proceeding through the first three years of the program, ending in the 2013-14 school year.