APUMAtlas of Preclassical Upper Mesopotamia
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Bagra, a first class law graduate in 1981 and Ete, a first class law graduate in 1987, after practicing for 12 and 14 years respectively along with Apum appeared in the examination.
Demarcating Apum and Kahat in documentary records: the Sehna archives
Tablet LT-3 (Figure 4), a treaty between King Till-abnu of Apum and King Jamsihatnu of Kahat, is the best preserved of the Leilan treaties.
The next four gods, Adad of Nawali, Adad of Kahat, Belet-Nagar and Belet-Apim, are significant both in the wider Habur Plains and for the two polities specifically, representing as they do the four main cities of Apum and Kahat, the parties to this treaty (Figure 1).
LT-3 uses two distinct set phrases to describe the domains of the kings of Apum and Kahat who are enacting this agreement.
This year saw a marked increase in diplomatic activity between Apum and Nawali.
Three other Leilan treaties (LT-1, LT-2, LT-4), which were written at Tell Leilan itself over approximately 40 years, use a different stock phase for Apum and its treaty partners.
From the elaborate descriptive terminology in LT-3 alone, Kahat appears as an equal partner of Apum. The diplomatic jargon used in the letters between Kahat and Apum supports this theory, since Jamsi-hatnu addresses Till-abnu as his brother and hence equal.
Another factor that complicates the concept of geographical borders in early second-millennium BC northern Mesopotamia is Apum's control of Ilan-sura.