As is well known, AQPs
are small and represent a family of transmembrane proteins, which allow the transcellular water transport driven by osmotic forces, and namely facilitate regulated water transport.
[1,2] Aquaporins (AQP
), which exists as intrinsic membrane proteins on the plasma membrane of cells, is responsible for the transport of water molecules.
Early reports showed that renal AQPs
might be dysregulated in diabetic patients and in DN [22-24].
The importance of aquaporins (AQPs
), transmembrane water channel proteins, in the gastrointestinal tract appears to be immediately evident .
Besides the water molecular transporting and consequent drought or salt tolerance, AQPs
also took part in some other biological processes such as photosynthesis (Uehlein et al., 2003), flowering (Bots et al., 2005), seed germination (Schuurmans et al., 2003), seed maturing and so on; it also transports other small molecules like glycerol (Schuurmans et al., 2003), H2O2 (Bienert et al., 2007) and CO2 (Uehlein et al., 2003).
Decreased expression of aquaporin (AQP
)l and ACJP5 in mouse lung after acute viral infection.
form tetramers, in which each monomer functions as an independent pore.
) and astrocytes were examined to elucidate the participation of these water channel proteins and glial cells in the pathophysiology and resolution of hydrocephalus.
Kwon et al., "Age-related changes in expression in renal AQPs
in response to congenital, partial, unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats," Pediatric Nephrology, vol.
), a gene family of water transmembrane channel proteins, not only ensure transcellular water transport across biological membranes  but also have been recently described as implicated in cell migration and proliferation [20,21].
) are a family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water channels in many cell types involved in fluid transport.[sup.9] Functional measurements indicate that AQPs
transport not only water, but also urea, glycerol and other small solutes.