ARAHOAssociation Royale des Architectes du Hainaut Occidental (French: Royal Association of Architects of Western Hainaut; Hainaut, Belgium)
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Both artefact types were probably used in rituals and may have been exchanged as valuables (Araho et al.
The distribution of stemmed tools differs from that of stone mortars and pestles and Lapita pottery because they were probably made only at the few restricted localities where there are obsidian outcrops (Araho et al.
Previously, stemmed tools from New Britain and the Sepik region were characterised to the New Britain source areas of Kutau/Bao, Baki, Gulu in the Willaumez Peninsula and Mopir in the Hoskins Peninsula, all of which preserve abundant evidence for local production (Araho et al.
Many of the New Britain stemmed tools, like the Biak tool, were made with a specialised manufacturing sequence involving the creation of a kombewa flake, which is derived from a blow across the bulbar surface of a large flake used as the core (Araho et al.
Stemmed tools have been found nearby on Manus Island (Araho et al.
Detailed reviews of the known tools with comprehensive bibliography are provided in Specht (2005b) and Araho et al.
Evidence that the knappers practiced this skill is found in the large number of irregular notched pieces (many of which were not primary kombewa flakes), sometimes with more than two notches, at the workshop site (FCH) described by Araho (1996) and to a lesser extent at the quarries at Bitokara Mission and Garua Island (Figure 4).
Contact removal flakes are technologically similar to certain "Kombewa" flakes (e.g., Owen 1938; Araho et al.