There are numerous neuropsychological tests that have been used to measure ARBD
. According to Aharonovich et al.
Children with ARND display few or none of the FAS facial features and their growth and height may range from normal to minimally deficient, but they display significant CNS damage whereas those diagnosed with ARBD
present with a range of congenital abnormalities that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure but have none of the other key features of FAS.
In 2011 alone, more than 4600 acute hospital days were used by patients with ARBD
in the Lothian NHS Board area - equating to almost 13 full-time beds - at a cost of PS2.2million.
The prevalence data is varied, and there are a number of characteristics commonly associated with an ARBD
has already extended to 89 branches across the country and remains proactively engaged with its stakeholders for aggregation of services and improving life standard of farmers through its distribution network, he said.
The terms ARBD
and ARND are used as one of five diagnostic categories recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in a 1996 report (Stratton et al.
The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a nondiagnostic umbrella term that includes FAS as well as ARND (alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder) and ARBD
(alcohol-related birth defects).
The result of this early exposure to alcohol may lead to a range of negative outcomes referred to as either fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), or alcohol related birth defects (ARBD
) (Goodlett 2005, Kvigne 2004, Welch-Carre 2005).
42 No child in the alcohol-exposed group met criteria for alcohol related birth defects (ARBD
These include prenatal alcohol effects (PAE), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD
) and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) (Sokol, Delaney-Black, & Nordstrom, 2003).
However, this is only one end of a spectrum including alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD
) and alcohol-related neurological defect (ARND).
The term FASD indicates a spectrum disorder made up of four subcategories including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS; with or without confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure), partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS; with confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD