Results of the calculated average time ASOI
corresponding to MFB 2% measured in both CRU and CVCR are displayed in Figures 6 and 7, respectively.
When compared to the early injection condition, the higher chamber pressures seen during middle and later injection conditions applied more initial resistance to spray penetration as highlighted on 0.5 ms aSOI
OUAS tanisi almis, ASOI
15 ve uzerinde olan hastalar calismada degerlendirilmistir.
Figure 9 depicts the barrel shock in the near-field at four specific instants of time for the pressure ratio of 20: 2 ms aSOI
after the Mach disc established at its maximum position; 7ms aSOI
at the end of injection, when the back-pressure already significantly increased from initially 1.5 to 1.9 bar and therefore reduced the pressure ratio to 15; 8.5 ms aSOI
shortly before the triplet points collapse on each other; 4 ms aEOI, when the barrel shock structure merges into a diamond structure, the normal shock cannot be resolved anymore and the highly underexpanded jet transforms in a moderately underexpanded jet.
0.7 ms aSOI
. The first injection event has just ended and the entrainment wave has spread-out the late fuel of the first pulse.
The liquid front locations of n-heptane after 2.5 ms ASOI
are almost zero under 680 K.
In this figure as well as in the subsequent ones presented in this paper, the time is referred to the start of injection with the acronym ASOI
(After Start of Injection) and all the plots represent the average value from 30 repetitions.
Velocity magnitude contours at different times after start of first injection (ASOI
) of RANS and LES in Figure 5 illustrate how the spray predicted by RANS has a much higher velocity magnitude than LES along the centerline of the spray.
The liquid penetration is shown in secondary y-axis and it can be seen that the spray impinges the wall at ASOI
of 1.3 ms and the maximum penetration is about 65 mm.
Results for vapor phase images recorded up to 2 ms after start of injection (ASOI
) (of the total recording time 2.6 ms ASOI
) are presented.
PLII images were acquired at different timings after the start of injection (ASOI
) to assess the temporal evolution of soot formation.
The luminous flame front progressed upstream through the spray jet and then stabilized a short distance from the nozzle, 0.5 ms after the start of injection (ASOI
), thus forming a quasi-steady set-off flame.