Physical dependence is another "state of adaption that often includes tolerance and is manifested by a drug-class specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist" (ASPMN, 2010, p.
Dependence is not to be confused with addiction, which is "a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations" (ASPMN, 2010, p.
.org/Conference/documents/Pe diatricNursesfourneysManworrenFin al.pdf
The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) suggested nurses should assess, identify, and document patients with "factors that may place patients at risk for unintended advancing sedation and respiratory depression with opioid therapy" 0arzyna et al., 2011, p.
The ASPMN (Jarzyna et al., 2011) recommended "nurses should act as strong advocates for pain management plans that incorporate opioid dose-sparing strategies initiated early in the course of treatment, e.g., on admission, before surgery, during surgery, and early after surgery" (p.
The Association for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN
) and the Alliance of Clinical Education (ACE) have invited Purdue Pharma L.P.