2010) (pre-filed for introduction to 2010 session by Asw
stands for approved social worker, and is one who has statutory duties under the Mental Health Act.
As shown in Figure 1, the chamber was filled with medium such as NSW, ASW, or low-sodium ASWs, which was connected to ground via an Ag-AgCl electrode.
Artificial seawater (ASW) consisted of 450 mM NaCl, 9.4 mM KCl, 10.2 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], 48.2 mM MgS[O.sub.4], 5.4 mM NaHC[O.sub.3].
Both the depolarization of the oocyte plasma membrane and the polyspermy block in the marine invertebrates and fucoid seaweeds are known to be suppressed in low-sodium ASW (Gould-Somero et al., 1979; Jaffe, 1980; Kline et al., 1985; Brawley, 1991).
Moreover, treatments with calcium channel blockers and the calcium chelator BAPTA inhibit GVBD in calcium-containing artificial seawater (ASW) but fail to prevent GVBD in SW-stimulated oocytes (Stricker and Smythe, 2000).
Moreover, cAMP elevators cause maturation in calcium-free ASW and can trigger GVBD without markedly affecting intraoocytic calcium ion levels (Stricker and Smythe, 2000, 2001), collectively suggesting that cAMP-elevating drugs elicit GVBD Oct their shared ability to increase cAMP rather than by off-target effects, such as calcium-mediated signals.
AMP-activated kinase; ASW, artificial seawater; CaFSW, calcium-free seawater; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; GMP, guanosine monophosphate; GV, germinal vesicle: GVBD, germinal vesicle breakdown; [IP.sub.3], inositol 1.4,5-trisphosphate: MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MPF, maturation-promoting factor; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase: PDE, phosphodiesterase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKC, protein kinase C; PLC, phospholipase C: SFK, Src family kinase; SW.
In 211 mM [Na.sup.+] (concentration of 1/2 ASW), fertilization was similar in the presence of 5 mM [K.sup.+] (concentration in 1/2 Asw) and in 10 mM [K.sub.+] (concentration in full-strength seawater): 67% [+ or -] 8.7% fertilization was obtained in 1/2 ASW when the [[K.sup.+]] was 5 mM, and 74.7% [+ or -] 1.5% of the eggs fertilized when the [[K.sup.+]] was 10 mM.
(5) Hatching of the larva occurred at 8-10 days post-fertilization in 1/2 ASW.
(2) External changes in [Na.sup.+], [K.sup.+], or both could perturb ionic movements across the sperm plasma membrane that are necessary for motility; support for this possibility comes from the current finding that fertilization is inhibited at elevated ([greater than or equal to] 300 mM) [Na.sup.+] in the presence of high (10 mM) [K.sup.+] and from a previous report that sperm become spontaneously motile (in the absence of SMIF) when placed in choline-substituted ASW that lacks Nations (Yanagimachi et al., 1992).(3) There could be a general osmotic inhibition of motility at altered salinities; osmolality has been shown to affect sperm motility in a variety of freshwater and marine fish, but not in Pacific herring (Morisawa et al., 1992).