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ATF1Activation Transcription Factor 1
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Especially, the p38 MAPK-CREB/ ATF1 is known as an important pathway for DC activation and DC maturation [13, 20].
Arthur, "MSK1 and MSK2 are required for the mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 in fibroblasts," Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.
Based on the results seen in Dow Coming's DoE testing, a new Gen 3 fluorosilicone compound was formulated to provide long-term property retention when exposed to today's most widely used ATFs: Mercon LV, ATF+4, Dexron VI and Pentosin ATF1. To illustrate the significant gains made, the performance of the optimized Gen 3 FSR formulation was compared with that of previous Gen 2 and Gen 1 fluorosilicone rubber compounds.
Although both the interacting partners of AtfA and the nature of their interactions have remained yet to be elucidated, it is well known that orthologs and paralogs of AtfA can physically interact with other bZIP transcription factors or even with other signal transduction pathway proteins, for example; Atf1 of S.
Yeast that lack the ATF1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that produces the fruity aroma chemicals, grow just fine in the lab, says geneticist Kevin Verstrepen of the University of Leuven and VIB, a research institute also in Belgium.
Genomul de mamifer contine trei factori de transcriptie inruditi structural, care se leaga de siturile-promotor ale elementului de raspuns al AMPc (CRE) si care sunt cunoscuti drept familia CREB, respectiv: proteina de legare a elementului de raspuns al AMPc (CREB), elementul modulator de raspuns al AMPc (CREM) si factorul de transcriptie activator 1 (ATF1).
(53, 54) A recurrent translocation t(12,22)(q13;q12) resulting in Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSRl)-activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) fusion gene, originally found in soft tissue clear cell sarcoma, has been recently identified in HCCC.
(51) FUS can serve as an alternative to EWSR1 in other sarcomas (eg, FUS-ERG in Ewing sarcoma (51) and acute myeloid leukemia (52) and FUS-DDIT3 in myxoid liposarcoma), (53,54) and EWSR1 and FUS appear to serve as alternative 50 partners with the ATF1 gene.
Although Zambrano et al (3) first defined CCSLGT in 2003, cytogenetic analysis was performed on only 1 of 5 cases, and it showed a translocation between chromosomes 22 and 12, in keeping with rearrangement of EWSR1 and ATF1 genes.
(6) A FISH analysis of a case of acral CCM demonstrated a chromosomal break at 12q13 near ATF1. (11) Given the limited data available, it is unknown whether CCM has recurrent genetic changes distinct from other melanoma subtypes.
Since this assay does not provide information regarding the translocation partner, additional FISH studies were performed, which showed rearrangement of the ATF1 locus on 12q13 (Figure 3, B).
However in contrast to MM, CCSTA is characterized by the t(12;22)(q13;q12) that leads to the fusion of the ATF1 gene localized to 12q13 to the EWSR1 gene at 22q12 in up to 90% of cases.