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ATF4Activating Transcription Factor 4
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This in turn results in increased production of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) which increases the expression of genes for ER stress recovery [31, 36, 37].
The correlations among the protein levels of IRF1, PDL1, eIF2[alpha], and ATF4 were significant in the tumor tissues, and similar patterns were found in the normal tissues except those between eIF2[alpha] and ATF4.
ATF4, also known as tax-responsive enhancer element B67, is a protein encoded by the ATF4 gene in human.
[50] Hypoxia promotes autophagy involving transcriptional induction of Atg5 and LC3 through the PERK-responsive transcription factors ATF4 and C/EBP Homology Protein (CHOP).
In model systems, UPR is activated by a set of transcription factors including activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6 (N)), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) (Walter and Ron, 2011).
Eventually, the process induces cell death via certain gene families including activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) [1].
Shelanski, "Specific downregulation of hippocampal ATF4 reveals a necessary role in synaptic plasticity and memory," Cell Reports, vol.
Typical examples of uORF-mediated translation regulation include general control nonderepressible 4 (GCN4), the yeast transcriptional activator, and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in mammals.
In the 5% [O.sub.2] group, there was a higher abundance of ATF4, CDX2, DDIT3, KEAP1, HSF1, OTX2, PAF1, POU5F1 (OCT4), REST, SREBF1, and XBP1 factors that are related to several cell cycle processes.
We isolated mRNA from the hypothalamus of the LFD- and HFD-fed mice and performed quantitative PCR analysis to analyze for ER stress responsive markers such as Grp78, Chop, spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp-1s), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), and ER DnaJ homolog 4 (Erdj4).
ATF4 activation by the p38MAPK-eIF4E axis mediates apoptosis and autophagy induced by selenite in Jurkat cells.