Recent studies have found that the first step in the oxidation of fatty acids is the mobilization of triacylglycerol, which is catalyzed by ATGL
and HSL .
No significant differences were observed in the expression level of EL, FAPBpm, perilipins 2, 3, and 5, ATGL
, and HSL (Figures 1(a), 1(c), and 1(d)).
Caption: Figure 2: Schematic illustration of the main intracellular pathways underlying WAT metabolic functions and the effects of drugs used in dyslipidemia and obesity on these pathways: B-oxidation ('through upregulation of ACS, CD36, MCD, and CPT1 genes and after stimulus as PPAR[alpha] agonist or adrenergic agonists, through upregulation of the AMPK pathway); lipolysis (sequentially by ATGL
, HSL, and MGL actions); lipogenesis (* through upregulation of GLUT4; ACC genes).
Abbreviations Arg1: Arginase 1 Ascll: Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 ATF3: Activating transcription factor 3 Atgl
: Adipose triglyceride lipase BCAA: Branched-chain amino acids BCAT-1: Branched-chain aminotransferase 1 C.
Western blot was performed to detect p-HSL, HSL, ATGL
, PLIN, (Cell Signaling Technologies), and [beta]-actin (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) according to the protocol described previously .
Different proteins have been identified by proteomic analysis, mostly classified into three groups: (1) structural proteins, such as the members of the PAT (perilipin-ADRP-TIP47) family and the cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) family; (2) membrane-trafficking proteins, including but not limited to Rab10, Rab18, Rab32, and Arf1 proteins and soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs); and (3) enzymes implicated in lipid synthesis, such as DGAT2, and catabolism, such as ATGL
and HSL [8, 25].
mRNA expression levels for (a) ATGL
, (b) CPT1, (c) UCP2, (d) PGC1[alpha] (d), (e) MTP, and (f) APOB100 in the livers of NTg and apoCIII mice fed either a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets and normalized to [beta]-actin (n = 6-8).
The target genes were related to cholesterol (LDL-R, SREBP 2, LXR, ACAT-1, HMG-CoA), triglycerides (SREBP-1c, ChREBP, FAS, DGAT 2, MTTP, ATGL
) and glucose (G6pase, PPAR-[alpha]) metabolism.
Results: We demonstrated that kinsenoside increased both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL
)-mediated lipolysis, which was upregulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, and the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids that require transportation into mitochondria for further [beta]-oxidation.
Items como "Esta bien que las personas trans puedan adoptar ninos", "Las personas trans no deberian poder ensenar en las escuelas", "Las personas trans no deberian ser integradas en nuestra sociedad" resultan adaptaciones de reactivos que Herek (1988) utiliza en su escala ATGL
. Tambien se considero la Escala de Actitudes de Heterosexuales hacia Homosexuales (HATH) (Larsen, Reed & Hoffman, 1980) en items tales como "Deberia restringirse el ingreso de personas trans a bares y boliches", "Las personas trans no deberian tener los mismos derechos que el resto de la sociedad".
Enzyme activity of FAS, HSL, LPL, ATGL
, acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), ELOVL6, A5FAD.
Neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which there are lipid droplets in almost all tissues.1 It is caused by mutations in Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL
) / PNPLA2 or Comparative Gene Identification (CG1-58) /ABHD5.2