The significant role of courage, or lack thereof, in the increased use of alcohol in college women as they first arrive to their freshman semester raises the important question of whether or not individual levels of courage play a role in their receptiveness to skills components of ATOD
Because of the uniqueness of the students in attendance at the AEPs, specifically with respect to their involvement in violent activities, ATOD
use, and risky sexual behaviors, staff also underwent two additional weeks of training under the direction of the AEP Crisis Counselor Supervisor.
Historically, ATODs have been a popular focus of peer helping research because of the influence of youth on one another to conform to social norms.
Topic areas have been reviewed separately, but it is foolish to think that this is the way life operates as the statistics on ATODs indicated.
This component is designed to influence ATOD-relared knowledge and attitudes, normative expectations, and skills for resisting media and peer influences to use ATODs. The material examines (1) both the short- and long-term consequences of ATOD use, (2) the actual levels of ATOD use among adults and adolescents (to correct normative expectations about ATOD use), and (3) the declining social acceptability of smoking and other ATOD use.
Because a major emphasis of the LST program is on reaching personal self-management skills, social skills, and skills for resisting social influences to use ATODs, the central role of intervention providers is that of skills trainer or coach.
Children whose parents use or abuse ATODs are at higher risk for substance use than children whose parents do not use or abuse ATODs.[10-13] Adolescents who progress from experimentation with cigarettes to established smoking are more likely to have parents who smoke. Multiple substance dependence by both parents has a significant adverse effect on boys' problem behaviors and also increases their risk for substance abuse later in life. Young children (ages 2-8) whose mothers use drugs are more likely to have social problems; boys are more likely than girls to exhibit behavior problems.
Children's knowledge of ATODs, defined as their ability to perceptually identify substances, was measured using the Child Drug Awareness Inventory (CDAI). Adapted from the Preschooler Attitude Assessment Inventory (PreAAI), the CDAI measures young children's knowledge, feelings, and attitudes toward alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
Within Level III, the core Child-to-Parent Communication cue was children's nonjudgmental attitudes toward their parents or significant others who use or abuse ATODs. As one parent explained:
Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among children continues to be a major health concern.
These data reflect the problems and challenges that urban municipalities continuously face with regard to the use of ATOD. A survey of Detroit residents show that more than two-thirds of high school students had tried cigarette smoking; one in three had used alcohol in the past month compared to one in two students statewide; and one in two students reported having tried marijuana (Drug Strategies, 1999).
The linkages between ATOD use and a range of social and health morbidities are well documented.