Further, Canada extended its zone of environmental protection under AWPPA out to 200 miles under Article 234 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ("UNCLOS").
Consistent with United States practice of protesting what it deems to be "excessive maritime claims," The United States voice formal protests to AWPPA in 1973 and the 1985 announcement of straight baselines.
(80) In the 1970s and 1980s Canada enacted the abovementioned legislation, including AWPPA and the drawing of the straight baselines in order to legally exert control.
2 (Can.) (AWPPA was later codified into the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as art.
(110) Although the United States also officially protested against this measure, (111) the extension of Canada's territorial sea to twelve miles was far less controversial than the AWPPA since sixty other countries had already made similar claims.
(273) The AWPPA also provided the stimulus for the development of treaty law and customary international law supporting the exercise of a heightened degree of regulatory and enforcement power by coastal states in ice-covered areas such as the Northwest Passage.
With the AWPPA, Canada was asserting a right to enforce pollution prevention regulations on all ships passing through the 100 mile zone, including construction, equipment and staffing standards for Arctic-going vessels.