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References in periodicals archive ?
Table 1 Possible Causes of Absolute Iron Deficiency Absolute Iron Deficiency Excessive iron loss (bleeding) * Frequent blood sampling for laboratory tests * Retention of blood in dialyzer and blood lines * Inflammatory bowel disease * Gastrointestinal neoplasms * Peptic ulcer disease * Surgical procedures (such as creation of vascular access) Women's health * Menstruation Nutritional * Inadequate diet Impaired iron absorption * Celiac disease * Helicobacter pylori infection * Medications (gastric acid inhibitors and phosphate binders) * Uremia Sources: Goodnough, Nemeth, & Ganz, 2010; KDIGO Anemia Work Group, 2012.
Treatment of anemia in haemodialysis with iron and ESA does not always lead to adequate anemia con-trol.24 Absolute iron deficiency (AID) was observed in some Epo treated patients.
Patients with ACD and absolute iron deficiency should receive supplemental iron therapy.
The results of the present study confirm that it is important to treat absolute iron deficiency in patients with heart failure, but suggest that it may not be useful to give iron supplements to heart failure patients with functional iron deficiency.
In addition to absolute iron deficiency (as discussed previously), patients on HD also experience alterations in iron homeostasis due to ironrestricted erythropoiesis and inflammation-mediated RE blockade.
Patients with CHF are considered to have absolute iron deficiency if their serum ferritin level is below 100 [micro]g/L.
One study of patients with renal failure showed that serum ferritin less than 200 ng/mL correlated with absolute iron deficiency according to bone marrow biopsy with iron staining (Kalantar-Zadeh et al., 1995).
Absolute iron deficiency is caused by the physical depletion of iron from the body (see Table 3).
* How are patients with absolute iron deficiency, functional iron deficiency, or inflammatory blockade being treated?
In cases of absolute iron deficiency, as indicated by a transferrin saturation below 200%, patients typically received a course of IV iron consisting of 125-mg doses of sodium ferric gluconate administered over eight consecutive dialysis sessions.
Absolute iron deficiency. K/DOQI guidelines define absolute iron deficiency for CKD, PD, and HD patients as a serum ferritin less than 100 ng/mL and TSAT less than 20%.
Causes of absolute iron deficiency may include malabsorption (Goch, Birgegard, Danielson, & Wikstrom, 1996; Kooistra et al., 1998), blood loss from frequent laboratory testing (weekly, bi-weekly, and monthly labs) (Fishbane & Maesaka, 1997), lowgrade gastrointestinal bleeding (Akmal, Sawelson, Karubian, & Gadallah, 1994), and hemolysis (Yee & Besarab, 2002).