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Caption: Figure 2: Production of Complement activation products in NHS incubated with B.
The fresh fuel elements of HTR-PM are vacuumized to remove N-14 before being charged into the reactor core, so that the corresponding activation product C-14 is reduced.
The H-3 in the gaseous form, mostly HT and HTO, with other gaseous fission and activation products, can pass through the dust filter.
Among the topics are fundamentals of aquatic chemistry relevant to radionuclide behavior in the environment, aquatic chemistry of long-lived mobile fission and activation products in the context of deep geological disposal, the impact of microorganisms on radionuclides in contaminated environments and waste materials, hydrogeological features relevant to radionuclide migration in the natural environment, the impact of colloidal transport on radionuclide migration, and radionuclide transfer processes in the biosphere.
The new Ex personal LifeSaver unit extends protection to those workers who are potentially at greatest risk, and enables employers to fulfil their duty of care obligations." The SBES LifeSaver system consists of a central control panel and a range of activation products. Highly visible 'Help Points' in different zones can be activated by workers in trouble using emergency pull cords, and wall-mounted pushbutton or 'break-glass' units which are used in addition to the Lone Worker wire-free alarm transmitters.
The discharge limits (the figures are the sum of authorised discharge limits for stages C and B combined) are: gaseous effluents: inert gases: 1.85 E 15 becquerels; periodic aerosols in excess of eight days (excluding I-131): 3.70 E 10 Bq; I-131: 2.20 E 10 Bq; and tritium: 2.20 E 13 Bq; liquid effluents: mixtures of fission and activation products (excluding tritium): 1.10 E 11 Bq; and tritium: 3.70 E 13 Bq.
For liquid effluents: H-3: 5.92 E 13 Bq and for fission and activation products: 2.22 E 11 Bq.
Measurements of the various breakdown or activation products, such as C3c, C3d, C4d, or the C5b-9 complex, have all been utilized to monitor ongoing C activation.
Radioactive fallout included activation products such as plutonium-239 and the longer-lived fission-products caesium-137 and strontium-90.
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