Whilst the 2009 Planning Commission review of apprenticeships (Planning Commission, 2009b) has led to a series of proposed changes to the Apprenticeship Act (1961) and Apprenticeship Rules (1992), anecdotal evidence suggests that many key stakeholders believe the proposed changes are mainly cosmetic and avoid the need for a more thorough and internationally relevant review of the apprenticeship system which sees such active labor market programs
fully integrated into the school-to-work-transition system.
Until 1994, Switzerland's program was minimal, but in recent years it has steadily increased, and it now accounts for a major share of the country's active labor market programs
. (See table 2.)(12) Spending on public-service employment programs in these nine countries averages 0.29 percent of GDP and 22 percent of expenditures on active labor market programs
These could include active labor market programs
, social safety nets, pensions, health insurance, and future unemployment benefits; and
The three principal chapters of the book, Chapters 3 through 5, consider, in turn, evaluation studies of active labor market programs
in the United States; adult training and retraining programs in Sweden, Britain, Germany, Japan, Australia, and France; and the national employment services in Canada, the United States, and Sweden.
Active labor market programs
coupled with the need for the unemployed to prove periodically that they are actually available for work also tend to limit the scale of abuse.
ADB said active labor market programs
(ALMPs) such as the JSP encourage employment creation and narrow the skills gap in the workforce.
The following active labor market programs
will be used: labor market information, including Phil-JobNet, Employment/Job Search Kiosks, and industry career guides and occupational pamphlets; referral placement , including Public Service Office (PESO), Private Employment Agencies, registered contractors and subcontractors, industry partners, and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TEDA) accredited training institutions; and career guidance and employment coaching, including network of career guidance and counsellors and career advocates.
Spending more on social protection and active labor market programs
, as well as adjusting the tax system, can help, but any measures need to be cost effective.
The government's active labor market programs
(ALMPs) have provided short-term job opportunities to disadvantaged sectors, but the country must map out programs and policies that will promote private investments to generate more employment.
"Stabilizing the situation by implementing a comprehensive package of active labor market programs
to improve livelihoods and earnings opportunities over the short term would require resources in the order of $166-242 million," the World Bank report said.
They noted that this should be done in conjunction with a strengthening of active labor market programs
and urged the authorities to reconsider plans to reduce funding for these programs.
Positive values for the Project s KPIs will be achieved by strengthening and expanding active labor market programs
that have already been carefully evaluated in Kenya and similar country settings and have been shown to be effective in increasing youth employability and promoting job creation and productive employment.