As Jane Jenson points out in chapter 1, there has been a great deal of chatter about new "social investment" in education for the very young and in job training for workers ("active labour market policy
") since the 1990s.
A good example of such an instrument is the 'Ich AG', literally Me, Inc., a start-up subsidy that caught a lot of public attention (and an 18% share of active labour market policy
spending) when it was launched in 2003.
The economic and social philosophy underlying the new approach, generally described as "active labour market policy
", was threefold:
Abbreviations EES European Employment Strategy EPL Employment protection legislation EU European Union EU-15 European Union with 15 member states (1995-2003) ILM Internal labour markets MYP Municipality Youth Programme NDYP New Deal for Young People ALMP Active labour market policy
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OLM Occupational labour markets OLS Ordinary Least Squares OMC Open Method of Coordination PISA Programme for International Student Assessment YG Youth Guarantee YUP Youth Unemployment Programme
It stressed the money should co-finance "active labour market policy
measures, specific to the needs of the workers in each of the sectors, such as occupational guidance, job search assistance and job search allowances, the promotion of entrepreneurship as well as training and incentives for companies recruiting redundant workers."
There are three main forms of active labour market policy
: training, wage subsidies and direct job creation.
The EGF finances active labour market policy
measures specific to the needs of the workers affected by redundancies linked to globalisation.
In the present context, the comparison is ethnocentric in the sense that it is focused on the four variables that characterise the encompassing combination of external numerical flexibility and income security (combined with some employment security) found in the Danish case: tenure, employment protection legislation, benefits to the unemployed and level of active labour market policy
. Thus the study is not a general analysis of flexicurity in the seven countries, but a comparison of the ways in which the specific 'flexicurity triangle' in figure 1 spells itself out--or is non-existent--in seven European countries.
Bo Rothstein seems to think it significant that America has no active labour market policy
; but why should it, except from the normative presupposition of a social democrat?
Priorities will include:* Active labour market policy
: Measures will be targeted at the long-term unemployed and unemployed young people, and will include counselling, bridging measures, integration measures and skill development.
* Active labour market policy
. The most notable change in the orientation of active labour market programmes is the increase in targeting towards job-search assistance (especially in the English-speaking countries, Austria, Belgium, Finland and Switzerland).
(1994) `An Evaluation of the Swedish Active Labour Market Policy
: New and Received Wisdom', NBER Working Paper no.