Because the two original constructs statistically had no discriminate validity, the questions developed for activity elements 1) opportunity identification and 2) opportunity analysis were combined into one construct, producing this combined variable.
Furthermore, previous work combined results for incremental and radical innovation or focused on factors other than activity elements. Instead, to validate our findings, we looked at the results of meta-analyses done by Henard and Szymanski (2001) and Evanschitzky et al.
The eight constructs we developed for activities associated with radical innovation are also aligned with most of the activity elements in the NCD model (Table 4):
The activity elements of opportunity identification, opportunity analysis, and idea generation and enrichment were all associated with two constructs.
It also runs counter to much of the existing front-end research, which, with the exception of Khurana and Rosenthal (1998), focuses on the activity elements of the front end.
Our results suggest that initiatives to create more innovation should start with a focus on the organizational attributes rather than on the activity elements such as team formation, opportunity identification, ideation or business planning.
Variables accounted for in the NCD model Explanatory NCD Element Variable Power of Model Engine Organizational 53% attributes Engine Teams and 24% Collaboration Activity elements associated 27% with incremental projects Activity elements associated 30% with radical projects