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Bogardus, "Acute insulin response is an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with both normal fasting and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations," Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol.
NGR: normal glucose regulation; IGR: impaired glucose regulation; nT2DM: newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; BMI: body mass index; Wc: waist circumference; WHR: waist hip ratio; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; 2hPG: 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose; FINS: fasting serum insulin; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; HOMA-j: homeostasis model assessment for beta-cell function; AUC: area under the curve of the first-phase (0-10 min) insulin secretion; AIR: acute insulin response; GDI: glucose disposition index; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hsCRP: hypersensitive C-reactive protein.
No differences were observed on acute insulin response to glucose between sleep conditions.
The major treatment effect is restoration of first-phase insulin secretion which was assessed by the acute insulin response (AIR) in intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), an increase in which indicates long-term drug-free remission of T2DM [3, 4].
Caption: Figure 1: Recovery of the acute insulin response (AIR) after short-term intensive insulin therapy.
Caption: Figure 2: The close association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and acute insulin response (AIR).
One example of the many approaches that have been used for this purpose is to take the acute insulin response to intravenous glucose as the measure of insulin secretion and relate that value to insulin sensitivity as estimated by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (14).
In another trial investigating the effect of combination of metformin or rosiglitazone with CSII, the combination of metformin for 3 months had better effects on insulin secretion function measured by acute insulin response (AIR) and HOMA-B while the combination with rosiglitazone better improved muscle insulin resistance [7].
In addition, acute insulin response (AIR) tests are useful in phenotypic characterization: patients with diffuse [K.sub.ATP]-HI display abnormal positive responses to calcium, abnormal negative response to the [K.sub.ATP]-channel antagonist tolbutamide, and impaired responses to glucose (49, 50).
Preoperative evaluation of infants with focal or diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism by intravenous acute insulin response tests and selective pancreatic arterial calcium stimulation.
[1] Nonstandard abbreviations: HI, hyperinsulinism; [K.sub.ATP], ATP-sensitive potassium; SUR-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1; GK, glucokinase; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; SCHAD, short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; MCT1, monocarboxylate transporter 1; IGF2, insulin-like growth factor 2; HA, hyperammonemia; EHHI, exercise-induced HI; BWS, Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome; CDG, congenital disorders of glycosylation; AIR, acute insulin response; [sup.18]F-DOPA, 18-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
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