On his anti-Jewish writings, see Williams, Adversus
Judaeos, 95 102; J.
6) This 'heretic' writing is mentioned by Irenaeus in his treatise Adversus
Haereses, circa 180 CE (Van Oort 2006:13).
This survey takes as its limits the publication in 1521 of Henry VIII's Assertio septem sacramentorum adversus
Martinum Lutherum, (4) which is the first printed book attributed to an English sovereign, and the death of Elizabeth I in 1603.
34) "Sanctificandi nominis divini ardor ac studium, sive indignatio adversus
ea quae ad violationem aut contemptum religionis pertinent.
Specifically, the dog's almost magical ability to distinguish friend from foe, "fierce as he may be with the others, so gently does he run up to friends with ears down and tail wagging" ("torvus ut adversus
reliquos, sic blandus amicis / auribus abiectis tremulaque occurrere cauda," 53-54), suggests that he must bear "some trace of our intelligence" (sensus vestigia nostri, 51).
In his famous Latin treatise Adversus
haereses, Irenaeus argued that God made the world, with its imperfections, "for the benefit of that human nature which is saved, ripening for immortality that which is [possessed] of its own free will and its own power, and preparing and rendering it more adapted for eternal subjection to God.
Ille mi par esse deo videtur, Ille si fas est, superare divos, qui sedens adversus
identidem te spectat et audit He'll hie me, par is he?
According to Kluge (1999 ) Gegner is a loan translation of Latin adversarius, the German preposition gegen translating the Latin adversus
which could serve as a preposition, an adverb, or an adjective, respectively.
Novi Calendarii Romani Apologia, adversus
Michaelem Maestlinum Gaeppongensem in Tubingensi Academia Mathematicum, tribus libris explicata (Rome, 1588), 77-81.
Augustine of Hippo, Adversus
Judaeos, in Patrologia cursus completus, series latina, 221 vols.
While repudiating in Adversus
Marcionem the view that the Bible speaks of two Gods, a judgmental one in the Old Testament and a loving one revealed through Christ in the New Testament, (8) Tertullian promotes a number of doctrines that henceforth were considered either metaphysically underdeveloped or simply unbefitting to God's majesty.
But there was already a long tradition of informed writings about this indigenous population of Fenno-Scandia, going back to the Middle Ages in Iceland (in sagas placed in Norway) and even the Viking Age in England (interpolated into the translation of the Historia adversus
Paganos undertaken at the court of King Alfred the Great).