The investigation is carried out at medium-high load engine condition (15-20 bar IMEP) and at a speed of 3500 rpm, for various spark timings and an assigned level of the relative air-to-fuel ratio
With LPG having a higher air-to-fuel ratio
than diesel fuel (as mentioned in the section In Preparing Data for CFD Analysis), more energy is transferred towards the incoming air.
40], , Cylinder composition estimation is extensively discussed in terms of air-to-fuel ratio
In particular, both a spark advance and an air-to-fuel ratio
(a) sweep are actuated.
The calculated results for the steady state thermal efficiencies are plotted as a function of altitude in Figures 2 and 3, firing rate in Figures 4 and 5, and air-to-fuel ratio
(mass basis) in Figures 6 and 7.
For the catalyst to perform its emission-reducing capabilities, the natural gas engine's lean-burn characteristics had to be altered to a stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio
Turbochargers for large-bore reciprocating engines no longer will represent merely a system add-on to increase the air-to-fuel ratio
, but will play a major role as a controllable component that significantly reduces pollutant emissions and increases engine fuel efficiency.
x] Because the air-to-fuel ratio
is so high, the exhaust gases, which normally hinder combustion, can be as much as 70 percent of the cylinder volume.
The new organization is dedicated to sales, support and continuing development of its state-of-the-art, user-friendly Windows-based air-to-fuel ratio
control systems," said Kevin O'Sullivan, president of Compliance Controls.
The trapped air-to-fuel ratio
that is necessary to achieve a specific [NO.
Tailpipe misfires can also throw a converter's air-to-fuel ratio
out of the range required for maximum converter efficiency (14.